J Extra Corpor Technol
Volume 53, Number 3, September 2021
|Page(s)||170 - 176|
|Published online||15 September 2021|
Can the Minimum Protamine Dose to Neutralize Heparin at the Completion of Cardiopulmonary Bypass be Significantly Lower than the Conventional Practice?
Address correspondence to: Min-Ho Lee, PhD, CCP, Perfusion Team, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114. E-mail: email@example.com
Accepted: 31 May 2021
Systemic anticoagulation with heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) should be neutralized by protamine administration to restore normal hemostasis. However, protamine has potentially serious side effects and excessive protamine can cause increased postoperative bleeding. Thus, our goal is to appropriately dose protamine at the completion of CPB to neutralize heparin so that neither residual heparin nor excessive protamine is present. We performed a retrospective study of 216 patients who underwent cardiac surgery to search for a safe minimum protamine dose (PD) when measuring heparin concentration (HC). In addition, we developed a formula to determine PD using total heparin dose (THD) and CPB time without measuring HC. When protamine-to-heparin ratio (P-to-H) is set at 1 mg protamine to 100 international unit (IU) heparin in HMS Plus Hemostasis Management System (HMS), we determined that 75% of the calculated total PD is a safe minimum PD to sufficiently neutralize circulating heparin after CPB. On average, this translates into either .37 mg protamine/100 IU heparin of THD or .54 mg/100 IU of the first heparin bolus. The formula we developed to calculate PD without measuring HC can provide a PD that strongly agrees with the safe minimum PD when measuring HC. The safe minimum PD to neutralize circulating heparin after CPB can be significantly lower than conventional dosing practices. Reduction of PD may decrease the risk of postoperative bleeding and protamine-related adverse events. Based on our data, we decreased P-to-H in HMS to examine whether it is possible to reduce PD further than the safe minimum PD determined in this study.
Key words: heparin protamine titration / protamine dose / protamine-to-heparin ratio / cardiopulmonary bypass / anticoagulation
© 2021 AMSECT
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