Open Access
J Extra Corpor Technol
Volume 55, Number 3, September 2023
Page(s) 121 - 129
Published online 08 September 2023
  1. World Health Organization. 2020. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-2019) Situation Reports. Available at: Accessed November 6, 2021. [Google Scholar]
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Cases in U.S. Available at: Accessed November 6, 2021. [Google Scholar]
  3. Tzotzos SJ, Fischer B, Fischer H, Zeitlinger M. Incidence of ARDS and outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: A global literature survey. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):516. Published 2020 Aug 21. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  4. Badulak J, Antonini MV, Stead CM, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for COVID-19: Updated 2021 Guidelines from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. ASAIO J (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992). 2021;67(5):485–495. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  5. World Health Organization. Clinical Management of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection When Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infection is Suspected-Interim Guidance. Available at: [Google Scholar]
  6. Barbaro RP, MacLaren G, Boonstra PS, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in COVID-19: An International Cohort Study of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry. Lancet. 2020;396(10257):1071–1078. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  7. Sklar MC, Sy E, Lequier L, Fan E, Kanji HD. Anticoagulation practices during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure. A systematic review. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016;13(12):2242–2250. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  8. Shekar K, Badulak J, Peek G, et al. Extracorporeal life support organization coronavirus disease 2019 interim guidelines: A consensus document from an International Group of Interdisciplinary Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation providers. ASAIO J. 2020;66(7):707–721. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  9. Bates SM, Weitz JI. The mechanism of action of thrombin inhibitors. J Invasive Cardiol. 2000;12(Suppl F):27F–32. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  10. Di Nisio M, Middeldorp S, Büller HR. Direct thrombin inhibitors. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1028–1040. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  11. Trigonis R, Smith N, Porter S, et al. Efficacy of bivalirudin for therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients requiring ECMO support. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022 Feb;36(2):414–418. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  12. Seelhammer TG, Rowse P, Yalamuri S. Bivalirudin for maintenance anticoagulation during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for COVID-19. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2021;35(4):1149–1153. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  13. Bissell BD, Gabbard T, Sheridan EA, Baz MA, Davis GA, Ather A. Evaluation of bivalirudin as the primary anticoagulant in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory failure. Ann Pharmacother. 2022 Apr;56(4):387–392. Epub 2021 Jul 29. PMID: 34323121. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  14. NCSS. Statistical Software (2021). Kayesville, Utah, USA: NCSS, LLC; 2021. [Google Scholar]
  15. Acherjee T, Behara A, Saad M, Vittorio TJ. Mechanisms and management of prothrombotic state in COVID-19 disease. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. January 2021;15:17539447211053470. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Martel N, Lee J, Wells PS. Risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis: A meta-analysis. Blood. 2005;106(8):2710–2715. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  17. Wiggins BS, Spinler S, Wittkowsky AK, Stringer KA. Bivalirudin: A direct thrombin inhibitor for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Pharmacotherapy. 2002;22(8):1007–1018. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  18. Rivosecchi RM, Arakelians AR, Ryan J, et al. Comparison of anticoagulation strategies in patients requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: Heparin versus bivalirudin. Crit Care Med. 2021;49(7):1129–1136. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.