Open Access
J Extra Corpor Technol
Volume 42, Number 1, March 2010
Page(s) 9 - 19
Published online 15 March 2010
  1. Monagle P. Thrombosis in children with BT shunts, Glenns and Fontans. Prog Pediatr Cardiol. 2005;21:17–21. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Cholette JM, Rubenstein JS, Alfieris GM, et al. Elevated risk of thrombosis in neonates undergoing initial palliative cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84:1320–5. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Monagle P, Barnes C, Ignjatovic V, et al. Developmental haemostasis. Impact for clinical haemostasis laboratories. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:362–72. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  4. Andrew M, Vegh P, Johnston M, Bowker J, Ofosu F, Mitchell L. Maturation of the hemostatic system during childhood. Blood. 1992;80:1998–2005. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  5. Svenmarker S, Appelblad M, Jansson E, Haggmark S. Measurement of the activated clotting time during cardiopulmonary bypass: Differences between HemoTec ACT and Hemochron Jr apparatus. Perfusion. 2004;19:289–94. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  6. Jobes DR, Nicolson SC, Steven JM, Manno CS. Coagulation defects in neonates during cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993;55:1283–4. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Shayevitz JR, O’Kelley SW. A reappraisal of anticoagulation and heparin neutralization for cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatrics. In: Eisenkraft JB, ed. Progress in Anesthesiology. San Antonio, TX: Dannemiller Memorial Education Foundation; 1995:275–96. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ichinose F, Uezono S, Muto R, et al. Platelet hyporeactivity in young infants during cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg. 1999;88:258–62. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  9. Lake CL. Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia, 3rd Ed. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange; 2005. [Google Scholar]
  10. Malviya S. Monitoring and management of anticoagulation in children requiring extracorporeal circulation. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1997;23:563–7. [Google Scholar]
  11. Kern FH, Morana NJ, Sears JJ, Hickey PR. Coagulation defects in neonates during cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;54:541–6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Comfurius P, Senden JM, Tilly RH, Schroit AJ, Bevers EM, Zwaal RF. Loss of membrane phospholipid asymmetry in platelets and red cells may be associated with calcium-induced shedding of plasma membrane and inhibition of aminophospholipid translocase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1026:153–60. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Sims PJ, Wiedmer T, Esmon CT, Weiss HJ, Shattil SJ. Assembly of the platelet prothrombinase complex is linked to vesiculation of the platelet plasma membrane. Studies in Scott syndrome: An isolated defect in platelet procoagulant activity. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:17049–57. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Chan AK, Leaker M, Burrows FA, et al. Coagulation and fibrinolytic profile of paediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Thromb Haemost. 1997;77:270–7. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  15. Mossinger H, Dietrich W. Activation of hemostasis during cardiopulmonary bypass and pediatric aprotinin dosage. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;65:S45–50; discussion s1-s76-6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Saatvedt K, Lindberg H, Geiran OR, et al. Complement activation and release of tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2, interleukin-6 and soluble tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-2 receptors during and after cardiopulmonary bypass in children. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1995;55:79–86. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  17. Owings JT, Pollock ME, Gosselin RC, Ireland K, Jahr JS, Larkin EC. Anticoagulation of children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass is overestimated by current monitoring techniques. Arch Surg. 2000;135:1042–7. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Kajimoto H, Nakazawa M, Murasaki K, et al. Increased thrombogenesity in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Circ J. 2007;71:948–53. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  19. Hezard N, Potron G, Schlegel N, Amory C, Leroux B, Nguyen P. Unexpected persistence of platelet hyporeactivity beyond the neonatal period: A flow cytometric study in neonates, infants and older children. Thromb Haemost. 2003;90:116–23. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  20. Harker LA, Malpass TW, Branson HE, Hessel EAII, Slichter SJ. Mechanism of abnormal bleeding in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: Acquired transient platelet dysfunction associated with selective alpha-granule release. Blood. 1980;56:824–34. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  21. Rinder CS, Gaal D, Student LA, Smith BR. Platelet-leukocyte activation and modulation of adhesion receptors in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;107:280–8. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Slaughter TF, LeBleu TH, Douglas JMJr, Leslie JB, Parker JK, Greenberg CS. Characterization of prothrombin activation during cardiac surgery by hemostatic molecular markers. Anesthesiology. 1994;80:520–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  23. Edmunds LH. Cardiopulmonary bypass after 50 years. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1603–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  24. Levy JH, Tanaka KA. Inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75:S715–20. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Chew MS, Brandslund I, Brix-Christensen V, et al. Tissue injury and the inflammatory response to pediatric cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: A descriptive study. Anesthesiology 2001;94:745–53; discussion 5A. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  26. Ashraf SS, Tian Y, Zacharrias S, Cowan D, Martin P, Watterson K. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on neonatal and paediatric inflammatory profiles. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1997;12:862–8. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Seghaye MC, Grabitz RG, Duchateau J, et al. Inflammatory reaction and capillary leak syndrome related to cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates undergoing cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996;112:687–97. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Petaja J, Lundstrom U, Sairanen H, Marttinen E, Griffin JH. Central venous thrombosis after cardiac operations in children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996;112:883–9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Jensen E, Andreasson S, Bengtsson A, et al. Changes in hemostasis during pediatric heart surgery: Impact of a biocompatible heparin-coated perfusion system. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77:962–7. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Spiess BD. The contribution of fibrinolysis to postbypass bleeding. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1991;5:13–7. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Williams GD, Bratton SL, Riley EC, Ramamoorthy C. Association between age and blood loss in children undergoing open heart operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;66:870–5, discussion 5-6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  32. Andrew M, Paes B, Milner R, et al. Development of the human coagulation system in the full-term infant. Blood. 1987;70:165–72. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  33. Andrew M, Paes B, Johnston M. Development of the hemostatic system in the neonate and young infant. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1990;12:95–104. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  34. Andrew M, Paes B, Milner R, et al. Development of the human coagulation system in the healthy premature infant. Blood. 1988;72:1651–7. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  35. Mitchell L, Piovella F, Ofosu F, Andrew M. Alpha-2-macroglobulin may provide protection from thromboembolic events in antithrombin III-deficient children. Blood. 1991;78:2299–304. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  36. Edelberg JM, Enghild JJ, Pizzo SV, Gonzalez-Gronow M. Neonatal plasminogen displays altered cell surface binding and activation kinetics. Correlation with increased glycosylation of the protein. J Clin Invest. 1990;86:107–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  37. Andrew M, Mitchell L, Vegh P, Ofosu F. Thrombin regulation in children differs from adults in the absence and presence of heparin. Thromb Haemost. 1994;72:836–42. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  38. Hakacova N, Laluhova-Striezencova Z, Zahorec M. Disturbances of coagulation in neonates with functionally univentricular physiology prior to the first stage of surgical reconstruction. Cardiol Young. 2008;18:397–401. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  39. McEwan A. Aspects of bleeding after cardiac surgery in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2007;17:1126–33. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  40. Chambers LA, Cohen DM, Davis JT. Transfusion patterns in pediatric open heart surgery. Transfusion. 1996;36:150–4. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  41. Slonim AD, Joseph JG, Turenne WM, Sharangpani A, Luban NL. Blood transfusions in children: A multi-institutional analysis of practices and complications. Transfusion. 2008;48:73–80. [Google Scholar]
  42. Williams GD, Bratton SL, Ramamoorthy C. Factors associated with blood loss and blood product transfusions: A multivariate analysis in children after open-heart surgery. Anesth Analg. 1999;89:57–64. [Google Scholar]
  43. Manno CS, Hedberg KW, Kim HC, et al. Comparison of the hemostatic effects of fresh whole blood, stored whole blood, and components after open heart surgery in children. Blood. 1991;77:930–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  44. Gruenwald C, McCrindle BW, Crawford LE, et al. Reconstituted fresh whole blood improves clinical outcomes compared to stored component blood therapy for neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery. 2008;136:1442–9. [Google Scholar]
  45. Cauwenberghs S, van Pampus E, Curvers J, Akkerman JW, Heemskerk JW. Hemostatic and signaling functions of transfused platelets. Transfus Med Rev. 2007;21:287–94. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  46. Koch CG, Li L, Sessler DI, et al. Duration of red-cell storage and complications after cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1229–39. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  47. Levin E, Wu J, Devine DV, et al. Hemostatic parameters and platelet activation marker expression in cyanotic and acyanotic pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the presence of tranexamic acid. Thromb Haemost. 2000;83:54–9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  48. Andrew M, Monagle P, Brooker LA. Thromboembolic Complications during Infancy and Childhood. Hamilton/London: B.C. Decker Inc.; 2000. [Google Scholar]
  49. Andrew M, David M, Adams M, et al. Venous thromboembolic complications (VTE) in children: First analyses of the Canadian Registry of VTE. Blood. 1994;83:1251–7. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  50. Schmidt B, Andrew M. Neonatal thrombosis: Report of a prospective Canadian and international registry. Pediatrics. 1995;96:939–43. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  51. van Ommen CH, Heijboer H, Buller HR, Hirasing RA, Heijmans HS, Peters M. Venous thromboembolism in childhood: A prospective two-year registry in The Netherlands. J Pediatr. 2001;139:676–81. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  52. Chan AK, Deveber G, Monagle P, Brooker LA, Massicotte PM. Venous thrombosis in children. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:1443–55. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  53. Raffini L, Huang YS, Witmer C, Feudtner C. Dramatic increase in venous thromboembolism in children’s hospitals in the United States from 2001 to 2007. Pediatrics. 2009;124:1001–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  54. Alioglu B, Avci Z, Tokel K, Atac FB, Ozbek N. Thrombosis in children with cardiac pathology: Analysis of acquired and inherited risk factors. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2008;19:294–304. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  55. Ozbek N, Alioglu B, Avci Z, et al. Incidence of and risk factors for childhood thrombosis: A single-center experience in Ankara, Turkey. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;26:11–29. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  56. Hausler M, Hubner D, Delhaas T, Muhler EG. Long term complications of inferior vena cava thrombosis. Arch Dis Child. 2001;85:228–33. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  57. Kearon C. Natural history of venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003;107:I22–30. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  58. Kuhle S, Koloshuk B, Marzinotto V, et al. A cross-sectional study evaluating post-thrombotic syndrome in children. Thromb Res. 2003;111:227–33. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  59. Leaker M, Massicotte MP, Brooker LA, Andrew M. Thrombolytic therapy in pediatric patients: A comprehensive review of the literature. Thromb Haemost. 1996;76:132–4. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  60. Revel-Vilk S, Sharathkumar A, Massicotte P, et al. Natural history of arterial and venous thrombosis in children treated with low molecular weight heparin: A longitudinal study by ultrasound. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:42–6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  61. Kaulitz R, Ziemer G, Rauch R, et al. Prophylaxis of thromboembolic complications after the Fontan operation (total cavopulmonary anastomosis). J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;129:569–75. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  62. Male C, Kuhle S, Mitchell L. Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in children. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2003;29:377–90. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  63. Prandoni P, Bernardi E. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1999;5:222–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  64. Kenet G, Kirkham F, Niederstadt T, et al. Risk factors for recurrent venous thromboembolism in the European collaborative paediatric database on cerebral venous thrombosis:A multicentre cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:595–603. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  65. Monagle P. Thrombosis in pediatric cardiac patients. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2003;29:547–55. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  66. Biss TT, Brandao LR, Kahr WH, Chan AK, Williams S. Clinical features and outcome of pulmonary embolism in children. Br J Haematol. 2008;142:808–18. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  67. deVeber G, Andrew M, Adams C, et al. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in children. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:417–23. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  68. deVeber GA, MacGregor D, Curtis R, Mayank S. Neurologic outcome in survivors of childhood arterial ischemic stroke and sinovenous thrombosis. J Child Neurol. 2000;15:316–24. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  69. Goldenberg NA, Knapp-Clevenger R, Manco-Johnson MJ. Elevated plasma factor VIII and D-dimer levels as predictors of poor outcomes of thrombosis in children. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1081–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  70. Vu LT, Nobuhara KK, Lee H, Farmer DL. Determination of risk factors for deep venous thrombosis in hospitalized children. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:1095–9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  71. Henke P, Froehlich J, Upchurch GJr, Wakefield T. The significant negative impact of in-hospital venous thromboembolism after cardiovascular procedures. Ann Vasc Surg. 2007;21:545–50. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  72. Brown KL, Ridout DA, Goldman AP, Hoskote A, Penny DJ. Risk factors for long intensive care unit stay after cardiopulmonary bypass in children. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:28–33. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  73. Gillespie M, Kuijpers M, Van Rossem M, et al. Determinants of intensive care unit length of stay for infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Congenit Heart Dis. 2006;1:152–60. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  74. Anton N, Massicotte MP. Venous thromboembolism in pediatrics. Semin Vasc Med. 2001;1:111–22. [Google Scholar]
  75. Monagle P, Adams M, Mahoney M, et al. Outcome of pediatric thromboembolic disease: A report from the Canadian Childhood Thrombophilia Registry. Pediatr Res. 2000;47:763–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  76. van Ommen CH, Ottenkamp J, Lam J, et al. The risk of postthrombotic syndrome in children with congenital heart disease. J Pediatr. 2002;141:582–6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  77. Marzinotto V, Choi M, Chan AK, Andrew M. Post-thrombotic syndrome in children with previous deep venous thrombosis. XVIII Congress of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), 2001, Paris, France. [Google Scholar]
  78. Heying R, van Oeveren W, Wilhelm S, et al. Children undergoing cardiac surgery for complex cardiac defects show imbalance between pro- and anti-thrombotic activity. Crit Care. 2006;10:R165. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  79. Alsoufi B, Al-Radi OO, Gruenwald C, et al. Extra-corporeal life support following cardiac surgery in children: Analysis of risk factors and survival in a single institution. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;35:1004–11, discussion 11. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  80. Best CH. Preparation of heparin and its use in the first clinical cases. Circulation. 1959;19:79–86. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  81. Hudson WA. The physiological aspects of extracorporeal circulation. Br J Anaesth. 1959;31:378–92. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  82. Mclean J. The discovery of heparin. Circulation. 1959;19:75–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  83. Rothnie NG, Kinmonth JB. Bleeding after perfusion for open heart surgery. Importance of unneutralized heparin and its proper correction. BMJ. 1960;1:73–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  84. Edmunds LHJr, Colman RW. Thrombin during cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;82:2315–22. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  85. Bahnson HT, Spencer FC, Landtman B, Wolf MD, Neill CA, Taussig HB. Surgical treatment and follow-up of 147 cases of tetralogy of Fallottreated by correction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1962;44:419–32. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  86. Castaneda AR. Must heparin be neutralized following open-heart operations? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1966;52:716–24. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  87. Roberts KD. Cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates. BMJ. 1962;1:1183–5. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  88. Berger RL, Ramaswamy K, Ryan TJ. Reduced protamine dosage for heparin neutralization in open-heart operations. Circulation. 1968;37:II154–7. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  89. Doty DB, Knott HW, Hoyt JL, Koepke JA. Heparin dose for accurate anticoagulation in cardiac surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1979;20:597–604. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  90. Babka R, Colby C, El-Etr A, Pifarre R. Monitoring of intraoperative heparinization and blood loss following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1977;73:780–2. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  91. Hattersley PG. Activated coagulation time of whole blood. JAMA. 1966;196:436–40. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  92. Bull BS, Korpman RA, Huse WM, Briggs BD. Heparin therapy during extracorporeal circulation. I. Problems inherent in existing heparin protocols. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1975;69:674–84. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  93. Bull BS, Huse WM, Brauer FS, Korpman RA. Heparin therapy during extracorporeal circulation. II. The use of a dose-response curve to individualize heparin and protamine dosage. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1975;69:685–9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  94. Young JA, Kisker CT, Doty DB. Adequate anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass determined by activated clotting time and the appearance of fibrin monomer. Ann Thorac Surg. 1978;26:231–40. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  95. Jumean HG, Sudah F. Monitoring of anticoagulant therapy during open-heart surgery in children with congenital heart disease. Acta Haematol. 1983;70:392–5. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  96. Litwin SB, Mitra SK, Von Colditz R, et al. Use of activated clotting time for monitoring anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children with congenital heart disease. Cardiovasc Dis. 1981;8:364–71. [Google Scholar]
  97. Despotis GJ, Santoro SA, Spitznagel E, et al. Prospective evaluation and clinical utility of on-site monitoring of coagulation in patients undergoing cardiac operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;107:271–9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  98. Jobes DR, Schwartz AJ, Ellison N, Andrews R, Ruffini RA, Ruffini JJ. Monitoring heparin anticoagulation and its neutralization. Ann Thorac Surg. 1981;31:161–6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  99. Harle CC, Murkin JM. Another bleeding heart: Perioperative heparin management revisited. Can J Anaesth. 2007;54:97–102. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  100. Moliterno DJ, Califf RM, Aguirre FV, et al. Effect of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade on activated clotting time during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or directional atherectomy (the EPIC trial). Evaluation of c7E3 Fab in the Prevention of Ischemic Complications trial. Am J Cardiol. 1995;75:559–62. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  101. Moorehead MT, Westengard JC, Bull BS. Platelet involvement in the activated coagulation time of heparinized blood. Anesth Analg. 1984;63:394–8. [Google Scholar]
  102. Gravlee GP, Arora S, Lavender SW, et al. Predictive value of blood clotting tests in cardiac surgical patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58:216–21. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  103. Andrew M, MacIntyre B, MacMillan J, et al. Heparin therapy during cardiopulmonary bypass in children requires ongoing quality control. Thromb Haemost. 1993;70:937–41. [Google Scholar]
  104. Ferguson JJ. All ACTs are not created equal. Tex Heart Inst J. 1992;19:1–3. [Google Scholar]
  105. Ogilby JD, Kopelman HA, Klein LW, Agarwal JB. Adequate heparinization during PTCA: Assessment using activated clotting times. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn. 1989;18:206–9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  106. Schriever HG, Epstein SE, Mintz MD. Statistical correlation and heparin sensitivity of activated partial thromboplastin time, whole blood coagulation time, and an automated coagulation time. Am J Clin Pathol. 1973;60:323–9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  107. Culliford AT, Gitel SN, Starr N, et al. Lack of correlation between activated clotting time and plasma heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Surg. 1981;193:105–11. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  108. Guzzetta NA, Bajaj T, Fazlollah T, et al. A comparison of heparin management strategies in infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:419–25. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  109. Sade RM, Bartles DM, Dearing JP, Campbell LJ, Loadholt CB. A prospective randomized study of membrane versus bubble oxygenators in children. Ann Thorac Surg. 1980;29:502–11. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  110. D’Errico C, Shayevitz JR, Martindale SJ. Age-related differences in heparin sensitivity and heparin-protamine interactions in cardiac surgery patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1996;10:451–7. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  111. Jaberi M, Bell WR, Benson DW. Control of heparin therapy in open-heart surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1974;67:133–41. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  112. Turner-Gomes SO, Nitschmann EP, Norman GR, Andrew ME, Williams WG. Effect of heparin loading during congenital heart operation on thrombin generation and blood loss. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;63:482–8. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  113. Despotis GJ, Filos KS, Levine V, Alsoufiev A, Spitznagel E. Aprotinin prolongs activated and nonactivated whole blood clotting time and potentiates the effect of heparin in vitro. Anesth Analg. 1996;82:1126–31. [Google Scholar]
  114. Altshuler JH, Altshuler TL, Halseth WL, Elliott DP, Roos EB, Feiler E. Hemotensiometry. A new technique for the study of hemostasis in open-heart surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 1974;18:516–30. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  115. Congdon JE, Kardinal CG, Wallin JD. Monitoring heparin therapy in hemodialysis. A report on the activated whole blood coagulation time tests. JAMA. 1973;226:1529–33. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  116. Friesen RH, Clement AJ. Individual responses to heparinization for extracorporeal circulation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1976;72:875–9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  117. Olshove VF, Langwell J, Burnside J, Bennett D. Heparin dose response in pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass. J Extra Corpor Technol. 1994;26:126–8. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [Google Scholar]
  118. Despotis GJ, Joist JH, Hogue CWJr, et al. The impact of heparin concentration and activated clotting time monitoring on blood conservation. A prospective, randomized evaluation in patients undergoing cardiac operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;110:46–54. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  119. Koster A, Fischer T, Praus M, et al. Hemostatic activation and inflammatory response during cardiopulmonary bypass: Impact of heparin management. Anesthesiology. 2002;97:837–41. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  120. McDonald MM, Jacobson LJ, Hay WWJr, Hathaway WE. Heparin clearance in the newborn. Pediatr Res. 1981;15:1015–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  121. Codispoti M, Ludlam CA, Simpson D, Mankad PS. Individualized heparin and protamine management in infants and children undergoing cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71:922–7, discussion 7-8. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  122. Codispoti M, Mankad PS. Management of anticoagulation and its reversal during paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass: A review of current UK practice. Perfusion. 2000;15:191–201. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  123. Taneja R, Fernandes P, Marwaha G, Cheng D, Bainbridge D. Perioperative coagulation management and blood conservation in cardiac surgery: A Canadian Survey. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;22:662–9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  124. Martindale SJ, Shayevitz JR, D’Errico C. The activated coagulation time: Suitability for monitoring heparin effect and neutralization during pediatric cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1996;10:458–63. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  125. Guzzetta NA, Miller BE, Todd K, Szlam F, Moore RH, Tosone SR. An evaluation of the effects of a standard heparin dose on thrombin inhibition during cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:1276–82. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  126. Horkay F, Martin P, Rajah SM, Walker DR. Response to heparinization in adults and children undergoing cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;53:822–6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  127. Okita Y, Takamoto S, Ando M, et al. Coagulation and fibrinolysis system in aortic surgery under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with aprotinin: The importance of adequate heparinization. Circulation. 1997;96:II-376–81. [Google Scholar]
  128. Weitz JI, Hudoba M, Massel D, Maraganore J, Hirsh J. Clot-bound thrombin is protected from inhibition by heparin-antithrombin III but is susceptible to inactivation by antithrombin III-independent inhibitors. J Clin Invest. 1990;86:385–91. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  129. Despotis GJ, Gravlee G, Filos K, Levy J. Anticoagulation monitoring during cardiac surgery: A review of current and emerging techniques. Anesthesiology. 1999;91:1122–51. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.